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The term DNA testing laboratory is used for profiling or typing DNA. This process is also known as DNA testing, genetic fingerprinting and even DNA typing in some regions. The complexities of the techniques used here help in establishing DNA types and sorts. The methods that forensic scientists employ here cater to the requirement of finding or identifying the DNA of individuals. The typing of DNA via these DNA testing laboratories helps to find solutions to genetic problems, diseases and other related factors.



DNA Testing for Genealogy

Join a DNA surname group by going to www.GenealogyDNA.com and enter your surname in the search box. This is the easiest and quickest way to find additional relatives.

The DNA testing laboratory has profiles that are encrypted sets containing categorized DNA’s. These reflect the characteristic of the individual along with the makeup of the DNA, which can also be called the person’s identifier. However, the DNA testing laboratory performs tasks like profiling, which is a technique that should not be confused or considered similar to complete genome sequencing. Any profiling techniques help to solve forensic cases where investigation of rape or parents identity is involved.

Techniques of profiling are accompanied with other services but most of the times DNA testing is used for paternity issues. Those who are unsure of their relatives or connection with their siblings can also opt for these DNA tests. There are many law enforcement agencies, along with legal representatives who take help from the DNA testing laboratory for resolving paternity disputes. Such identification of the DNA’s also helps to ascertain child custody.

One can approach the DNA testing laboratory for assistance with immigration claims. Arguments related to identification of the rightful heir and help with adoption procedures are sorted out through these tests. There are facilities for the availability of state-of-art-instruments so that the latest equipment can be used for ascertaining identity or DNA of the individual. Availability of high resolution testing facilities enables performance of the test in a controlled environment, and thus gets impeccable results.

Without ancestry DNA tests, most people can only name their maternal and paternal grandparents.  After that the information becomes unreliable unless great time and effort is expended to research historical records.

Science allows us to look back at our ancient family tree, to the time when humans first migrated from their early roots in Africa.  To find out where your family originated, migrated and then mutated to form its own group or haplogroup, you need only take a moment to swab the inside of your cheek with a special painless device.

Genealogists today are actively gathering DNA samples to establish markers and lines of ancestry.   When looking for a DNA test lab ask about the size of the database.  The larger the base of knowledge, the more reliable and informative your test results will be.  There are several labs that provide DNA testing; begin your search with the size of the database.

There are two kits available, the Mitochondrial or mtDNA and the Y-Chromosome.  The Y chromosome passes down only through the males of a family since males have an X and a Y chromosome while females have just an X.   The Y Chromosome test will determine paternal linkage, while the mtDNA will explore the mother’s line for her female and male children.

There are various DNA test kits available and depending upon the number of markers the kit looks for, the more information the result will yield, and the greater the cost for the kit.  You will receive the test kit in the mail.  It will house what appears to be an undersized plastic toothbrush and a sterile container to place it in for mailing it back to the testing center.

Once you return the Ancestry DNA tests you’ll wait 6 to 8 weeks for the results and then you are on your way to exploring the ancient roots of your family.

What happens in a DNA lab can alter the course of history.  In the case of two individuals from New York city, DNA analysis freed one person from prison and sent his accuser into a prison sentence of her own.

William McCaffrey was convicted of rape in 2005 based on testimony from the victim who said she was gang raped at knife point by three men including McCaffrey  while walking to a party in upper Manhattan.  McCaffrey was convicted and sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The alleged victim Biurny Peguero recanted her testimony last year, admitting she lied in an attempt to cover up a fight she had with some friends.  She told the court her friends were impatient with her for complaining about the men who frightened but did not attack her.  By lying that she had been raped Peguero hoped for more sympathy.

DNA testing confirmed that the bite marks on Peguero could not have been made by McCaffrey.  In September of 2009 a judge declared McCaffrey innocent.

In his 10 page decision State Supreme Court Judge Richard D. Carruthers wrote “the only reasonable conclusion to draw from Peguero’s recantation, the DNA results, and the statements of witnesses made after the recantation is that Mr. McCaffrey did not commit the crimes of which he was convicted.”

Peguero pleaded guilty on two counts of perjury.  She will now be the one in prison for up to seven years.  McCaffrey spent four years in jail on the wrongful conviction.

This is the latest in a series of prison cases overturned on DNA evidence, leading one to ask how many innocent men were erroneously sentenced to death in the decades before science could prove innocence?

In his decision, Judge Carruthers called wrongful convictions “a catastrophe both for the injured party and for the criminal justice system”, proving the vital nature of the work of a DNA lab.

Most often, DNA testing sites are used when a home DNA test kit will not suffice.  If you wish to find out about inherited disorders, Native American bloodlines, or you want to know if your twins are identical or fraternal, a home DNA test will provide you with answers.

Home kits are also used to settle issues involving paternity; however the results will not be admissible in a court of law because there is no proof of the origin of the sample. In cases where child custody and child support are being determined, an authenticated document called Chain of Custody must be obtained and that comes from a laboratory.

When an alleged father seeks proof of paternity, he enters an accredited lab, shows proof of identification and gives a DNA sample in the form of a cheek swab with a worker present.  Results can be expected within 3 to 5 days.  The lab report is legal.

Testing centers do other kinds of DNA analysis as well.  They can test samples within a family applying for visas with the U.S. Department of Immigration to show proof that each member of an alleged family is indeed related.

Some Native Americans wish to identify the clans they are associated with.  There are four ancient clans responsible for the Native populations today.  There are testing centers across the country, some located within close proximity to Reservations, so Native Americans can get the peace of mind they seek.

You’ll want to choose a laboratory that has earned  accreditation such as the American Association of Blood Banks, or AABB, and the ISO, the International Standards Organization. As DNA tests are not considered a medical necessity they are not covered by insurance, so shop around when looking for DNA testing sites to find one with reasonable prices.

A DNA database is the collection of DNA samples from citizens in a specific country. Since each person has his or her own distinct genetic makeup, a DNA database serves as a type of national identification.

The first National DNA database was in the United Kingdom. Since that 1995 breakthrough, other countries followed including Germany, France, Sweden, Norway, New Zealand and the United States.

The FBI oversees the DNA database in the U.S. In a landmark thesis titled the Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods, scientists probed the use of such a database for crime-solving, however there are other uses for it as well. It can be used for medical purposes and for genome studies and ancestry.

By 1990 the beginnings of the database had spread to six states. They interfaced their systems to share DNA profiles between them. The ability for criminals to escape across state lines was starting to disappear.

The DNA Identification Act of 1994 bestowed the authorization of the database on the FBI, and by 1998 the database called CODIS was in full operation.

Though originally intended to track sex offenders, the U.S. database has grown to include all criminal acts. President George W. Bush put his mark on the operation by proposing that anyone arrested be forced to give a DNA sample whether or not the person was convicted of the crime.

Finally, in 2004, the Justice for All Act grew the reach of the database even further. It allowed for the collection of any DNA information from any state.

Since 2008, in one of President Bush’s final acts, there is a National Contingency Plan which gathers and stores DNA samples from every newborn baby to begin a profile of family DNA, with or without the consent of the parents.

While the intent is to screen for potential health disorders, the DNA database will also be used to screen for behavioral problems so youth can be a candidate for counseling early.

All of the above described database has to do with forensics and criminal cases. This is not the type of database that your test results would be entered in to for genealogy purposes. The two databases do not mix.

DNA Testing Centers

Image by shiner.clay via Flickr

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material that determines legacy of eye color, hair color, and many other human and animal traits like stature, bone density, etc.

DNA contains genetic information called genes, used in the development and functioning of all known living organism. Most DNA is placed in the cell nucleus but certain smaller amounts of DNA are also seen, or originate, in the mitochondria.

The function of DNA is to provide code on which all life is based. DNA passes all of these important instructions to the next generation. The genes carry the instructions for making all the thousands of proteins that are found in a cell. The proteins in a cell determine what that cell will look like and what jobs that cell will do.

DNA testing centers are able to discover some of the greatest medical and scientific achievements in recent world history. These findings can be used in many situations like solving paternity disputes, help in getting immigration claims, identify rightful heirs and much more.

The results from DNA testing centers are usually available in just 3-5 working days from the receipt of the samples at the laboratory. The samples can be taken from the body fluid or tissues including the blood, hair, saliva, semen, nails etc. It can also be extracted from any compromising of various body fluids that contaminated.

Also, the DNA extracted from the individual’s saliva is easily stored for a number of years. There are many types of DNA testing labs that provide various methods of tests, like Paternity Testing, siblings testing, prenatal testing, and immigration DNA testing, infidelity testing etc. The cost amount of these various DNA tests depends on the type of test that the person is taking.

CNN Cancer and Genetics Part II – Previvors and Genetic Testing

Part of a weekly segment on Cancer and Genetics, CNN discusses previvors and genetic testing with Dr. Ora Karp Gordon, MD, MS. Dr. Gordon is Director of the GenRISK Adult Genetics Program and Genetics Director of the Wasserman Breast Cancer Risk Redu…

There are many DNA testing centers that we review here, so please bookmark this site and return often for more free information.

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When searching for DNA testing facilities make sure the one you chose is accredited. There are many reputable laboratories however the accredited ones maintain the highest standards.

Look for a lab that is ISO 17025 listed. This stands for International Standards Organization and it has global reach among DNA testing labs. You’ll also want to see the laboratory is accredited by the AABB which is the American Association of Blood Banks.

The most common reason to be DNA tested is to settle a paternity issue. Most labs will automatically run a sample twice to be certain of the results and if the lab has accreditation, the findings are admissible in any court in the world. Paternity tests are often involved in child support proceedings. Depending upon the lab, results can be established in three to ten days.

DNA tests are also used to settle immigration issues to make sure all members of a family applying for visas are close relatives. Tests are conducted with Estate disposal as well. Sometimes a person will come forward claiming to be a close relative of the deceased. A DNA test will determine if the claim is true.

Lastly DNA testing is underway on millions of individuals around the world in an effort to map human ancestry. Scientists are collecting DNA samples from people seeking information on their ancient ancestry in order to collect a large database of information. With new samples coming each day, genealogists are pinpointing with greater frequency and accuracy, lineage for both parental lines.

All DNA test kits are essentially the same. You order a kit in the mail and swab the inside of your cheek. A few days to a few weeks later, DNA testing facilities reveal the answers you’ve been waiting for leading to a better night’s sleep for many.

By Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) 2007.

Image via Wikipedia

There are DNA testing centers in all 50 states. There are several reasons a person will want DNA test results.

One purpose of DNA testing is for medical issues. If an illness strikes several family members, a DNA test can determine an individual’s risk for getting that same disease.

Immigration laws sometimes require a DNA test to determine of every family member seeking to join a legal immigrant in America is indeed a member of the same family.

Another purpose of DNA testing is to settle the issue of paternity. The best testing center will run the test twice so there is no question who is the father of a child.

There are four options for DNA paternity testing. A Legal test is required for court cases and is the most popular test option. These results will often be used to decide custody and child support, as well as birth certificate issues.

A Home paternity test is for peace of mind. It is the most affordable paternity test option and the easiest to perform.

A Prenatal test determines paternity before the baby is born. This option works for people who don’t want to wait until birth to decide who the father is.

A Discreet paternity test gets results without the knowledge of other parties. This one most closely resembles television dramas and includes used chewing gum, a toothbrush or clothing to harvest a DNA sample.

DNA testing is also used to gather information about infidelity and forensics where a suspicious article is tested and matched to your own to give you the truth. Finally, DNA test results can be used to settle Estate issues when a person says he is a relative of the deceased.

Whatever your reason, DNA testing centers will give you the answer and peace of mind you need.

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One new method in DNA data examinations has opened up many new opportunities to connect people together. Today you may search for your own surname within the largest DNA database of its kind! Modern day testing has taken genealogy to a new height. Through collecting cell information and tracing an individual’s family tree by means of DNA testing has given a new advantage to genealogy.

In finding out a person’s ethnic and genetic make up, when the individual has exhausted all sources of genealogical record searching, the last and probably the best resort lies in a DNA Test. It will help to be able to confirm whether or not the person can include the proper people in to his or her family tree. DNA tests for genealogy do not determine paternity. These tests inform you about your ancestry and genealogy details.

The tests are very easy and uncomplicated and can be done at home. The DNA tests provide accurate information to an individual relating to the person’s family background, ethnic heritage and linkups with their previous generations. These tests may resolve concerns related to suspicions inside families. In the event of individuals descending from some migratory group, the DNA test outcomes may be miraculous in finding their original homeland.

Hence there exists a really close connection between DNA Testing and Ancestry.

Genealogy is the discipline that deals with discovering the roots of an person. The best way to know regarding your descent or genetic genealogy connection is through DNA tests. In order to determine your genetic roots, testing should be taken by as many of one’s family members as you possibly can. Testing the relatives becomes important if you’re curious to find your relations with your ancestors. The more individuals within your own group of family members tested, the greater is the possibility of success.

One of the earliest methods of connecting genealogy people together through DNA is by following your own male ancestors on your father’s paternal line. A Y-DNA test extends your surname line back to pre-historical records era. Then when another of the same family name also takes the DNA test you will be able to see approximately back to where you both have a common ancestor.

With an mtDNA test your mother’s mother’s maternal line will be able to be discovered as far back as pre-historical times as well and you will be able to discover which part of the world that your early ancestors migrated from. For several years now these were the only ways of testing which were available to researchers. However with the recent news release of one DNA testing company using their Family Finder data, you will be able to locate other distant cousins that relate to you through all of your family tree branches, not just the two paternal and maternal lines.

Now with Family Finder, adopted children might be able to locate their birth parents. The parents that have given up children for adoption previously may also find the child that was adopted out. Never in the past has the possibility of solving their curiosity of locating their actual family connection been so possible. The DNA tests enable them to find all genealogical data and reunite them with their family and know the details in regard to their family tree. We urge you to read more on this subject from resources mentioned. Some very interesting discoveries are being uncovered every day!

Click on this link provided to read more on this subject and to watch a good Family Finder video

Remember, now you can connect to people from all of the internal branches of your family tree, not just your father and mothers direct paternal or maternal lines.


A case of DNA diagnostics in a high school in Manhattan uncovered a species of cockroach not previously familiar to scientists.

Brenda Tan, 17, and her Trinity School classmate 18 year old Matt Cost conducted a student experiment on classifying species by a single gene instead of the complete set of genes more commonly used.  Rockefeller University and the American Museum of Natural History were collaborators on the work.

The pair set about their upper West Side neighborhood in New York City and over four months, collected specimens of 95 species in their every day existence.  There wasn’t much new information in the results.  For example, all their classmates who gave a hair sample learned they were part of the human race, chuckled Tan.

And yet when the students collected what looked like a typical cockroach lying dead on the floor of an apartment, they learned from the Natural History Museum that genetically speaking, the cockroach had a four percent difference from all 65,000 species in the database.

The ramifications of this are enormous and question what the scientific community knew about cockroaches.  More research will now be done to see if this is indeed an entirely new species.

The other surprises in the research, as reported in The New York Times, were that many household items were not accurately labeled.  A sample of venison dog treats turned out to be beef, some sturgeon caviar was nothing more than paddlefish from Mississippi, and some pricey sheep’s milk cheese was actually made from cow’s milk.

This form of “DNA Barcoding” is only six years old, but it is becoming a valuable resource in the classification of items.  All the DNA databases are available to the public so lab workers need only submit a sample for the DNA diagnostics to reveal proof of identity.

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